Landscape Measurements

During the summer of 2008, we conducted on-site landscape measurements for a subsample of 360 households to estimate fluxes and storage of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in vegetation and soils on their properties.

Landscape measurements included:

  • assessment of land cover type (trees, bushes, lawn, impervious surface, etc.)
  • total number of trees

For each tree greater than 2 cm at breast height, we recorded:

  • species
  • diameter at breast height
  • total height and height of first branching
  • canopy light exposure
  • percent of canopy missing
  • canopy dieback (as % dead branches)
  • distance and direction from buildings (for trees ≥7 m tall and located < 20 m from the building)

We used the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model to estimate tree C uptake and storage (Nowak et al. 2008) along with published data on wood and leaf stoichiometry to estimate tree N and P fluxes. We modified output from a model of turfgrass productivity (Milesi et al. 2005) and combined it with published data on grass and soil stoichiometry to estimate lawn carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus fluxes.